e d g e - education for disability and gender equity

Biology
CONTENTS

GENETIC DISORDERS
1 Intro
2 Single gene disorders
3 Additional chromosomes
   
4 Activity
 
5 Resources
   
SPINAL CORD INJURY
1 Intro
2 Spinal cord and vertebrae
3

Effects of SCI

   
4 Activity
   
5 Resources

SELF-TEST - TEXT VERSION
Read the question carefully, then select the answer:

1. Human beings can have differences because of genes and spinal injuries
A. AGREE      B. DISAGREE

2. Most people have ___ chromosones.
A. 23      B. 46      C. 48

3. Genetic differences result in disorders in humans.
A. ALWAYS      B. NEVER      C. USUALLY      D. NOT USUALLY

4. What is the single gene disorder that makes some blood cells pointy and painful?
A. MARFAN SYNDROME
B. TURNERS SYNDROME
C. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

5. When there are three chromosomes on the 21st pair, the disorder is usually called:
A. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA
B. TURNERS SYNDROME
C. DOWN SYNDROME

6. All people who break their backs will:
A. Never walk again
B. Never feel their legs again
C. Both of the above
D. None of the above

7. Injuries to this region of the spine generally create the most impact on the body with more severe outcomes
A. CERVICAL     B. THORACIC     C. LUMBAR     D. SACRAL    

8. Which of the following statements is true?
A. Women have more spinal injuries than men
B. Gun shots cause more spinal injuries than car accidents
C. Men have more spinal injuries than women
D. Paraplegia is more common than quadriplegia

ANSWERS:

1 - A: That's right! You know how this works, now try the other questions!
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1 - B: Well, there are more ways to have differences but genes and injuries to the spine are the two this lesson discusses.
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2 - A: Actually, no, most people have 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs.
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2 - B: You are right! Most people have only 46 chromosomes.
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2 - C: There are over 6 billion subunits tightly packed into 23 pairs of chromosomes- which means 46. Some people have 47 because of "trisomy" or Down Syndrome. But 48 is extremely rare. Have a look at the biology content pages for more details.
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3 - A: Not correct - Genetic differences are as much a normal part of our biology as genetic similarities. Only some genetic differences are called disorders. These usually are named disorders if they have a significant impact on how a person functions.
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3 - B: Not correct - Genetic differences are as much a normal part of our biology as genetic similarities. Some genetic differences are called disorders. These usually are named disorders if they have a significant impact on how a person functions.
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3 - C: Not correct - There are hundreds of changes and mutations daily in the world. All differences do not cause disorders but many disorders are the result of genetic differences. Want more information? Try reviewing the biology content pages.
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3 - D: This is the correct response because genetic differences do NOT USUALLY result in disorders. They can, if medical professionals and society decide that a specific difference is significant enough. But most differences are not considered impairments or disorders.
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4 - A: The Marfan syndrome is a heritable disorder of the connective tissue that affects many organ systems, including the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart and blood vessels. However, it does not make blood cells pointy and painful.
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4 - B: Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition that exclusively affects girls and women. It occurs when one of the two X chromosomes normally found in females is missing or incomplete. It does not affect the shape of blood cells.
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4 - C: Correct. Sickle Cell Anemia causes blood cells to become sickle shaped making it difficult and sometimes painful for the cells to pass through veins.
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5 - A: Sickle Cell Anemia is caused by a disorder to a single gene, not by an extra chromosome on the 21st pair.
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5 - B: Turners Syndrome is identified when one of the X chromosomes is missing or not formed, not by three chromosomes at the 21st pair.
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5 - C: Correct!
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6 - A: Even though it seems impossible, breaking your back or neck does not always result in paralysis. The spinal cord carries the messages so it is protected by bones and tissue. If the cord is not injured people with broken backs usually can walk and feel when they have recovered.
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6 - B: Some people who break their back have an intact spinal cord so they have both sensation and mobility! Only people with spinal cord or nerve damage will experience paralysis and/or loss of sensation.
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6 - C: Some people who break their back have an intact spinal cord so they have both sensation and mobility! Only people with spinal cord or nerve damage will experience paralysis and/or loss of sensation.
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6 - D: Correct! Some people who break their back have an intact spinal cord so they have both sensation and mobility.
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7 - A: Correct - because of its important location the cervical vertebra can impact breathing and all four limbs.
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7 - B: Thoracic vertebra might be injured and a person could still use parts of the arms and upper body even though he or she might not have feeling below the injury.
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7 - C: Injuries to the lumbar region usually impact the least amount of the body because upper body function is retained.
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7 - D: While painful, sacral injuries are less common and usually less severe than other spinal cord injuries.
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8 - A: Not Correct. Because of high risk activities, and different behavior patterns women and men have different rates of injuries. 82% of spinal cord injuries are sustained by men, 18% by women.
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8 - B: Not Correct. Motor vechicle accidents cause 44% of all spinal cord injuries, and 24% are caused by acts of violence. See the Biology Resource page for links to more information.
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8 - C: Correct, men are more likely (82%) to get a spinal cord injury.
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8 - D: Not Correct. Quadriplegia is slightly more common than paraplegia. See the Biology Resource page for links to more information.
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